Friday, May 25, 20120 comments


Inflammatory consolidation of the lung.


I.             Infective:

1. Bacterial: (the most common)
Sreptococcus pneumoniae. (50%)
Hymophilus influenza. (5%)
Mycoplasma pneumoniae. (5%)
Legionella pneumophila. (2%)
Staphylococcus aureus. (2%)
Klebsiella pneumoniae. (rare).
Anerobic bacteria. (rare).
Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (special form of pneumonia)
2. Chlamydia pneumoniae. (5%)
A form between bacteria & virus.
3. Viral : (5%)
Influenza & para-influenza.
Measles & chicken pox.
Syncytial respiratory virus.
4. Other rare organisms:
Rickettsia: Coxiella burneti (Q fever).
Protozoa: Pneumocystis carinii.
Fungus: Candida, Actinomyces & Aspergillus.
Parasites: Schistosoma, Ascaris & Ankylostoma.

II.           Non-infective:

1. Chemical: war gasses & lipoid pneumonia.
2. Physical: irradiation.
3. Allergic: Lofflers syndrome (due to filariasis).
4. Immunological: collagen diseases e.g. SLE.


I. Lobar - pneumonia.
II. Lobular pneumonia (Broncho-pneumonia).
III. Sub-lobular (sub-segmental) pneumonia.

According To The Situation In Which Pneumonia Occurs

I. Community acquired pneumonia (CAP).
II. Hospital acquired pneumonia (Nosocomial pneumonia).
III. Pneumonia in the immune-compromised host.
IV. Aspiration & orthostatic pneumonias.

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